Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning 101

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning 101

What is Artificial Intelligence?   

In simple terms, it’s an ability of a digital system like computer, robot, software, and machine to behave and perform tasks like intelligent beings. The system is designed in such a way that it will mimic the human mind and make intelligent decisions.  

You must have seen Terminator where Intelligent Robots take over the world and Jarvis the AI of Iron Man. In near future we will have more advanced AI technologies and we all hope that it will be used for betterment of humanity. 

The Basic Classification   

1.Narrow or Weak AI   

This type of AI can only perform basic functions and trained for a particular task. For example, virtual assistants like Siri or Cortana.   

2.Strong AI   

This type of AI can perform various complex operations and can think, react, optimize and perform tasks like a living being. If given a problem, it can improvise itself to find a solution. Self-driving cars are one of the best examples of strong AI.   

Classification based on functionalities   

1.Reactive Machines   

This type of AI does not store memories or use past experiences to determine future actions. They simply perceive the world and react to it. For example, Deep Blue AI developed by IBM to play Chess games.   

2.Limited Memory   

It used past experiences or memories to determine future actions. This type of AI is most used in self-driving cars, suppose a truck is driving in front of your car, based on truck’s movements in the can predict its future movements.   

3.Theory of Mind   

This AI is designed to function like the human brain. It can understand emotions, thoughts, expectations, feelings, desires and have the ability to interact with human beings. For example, Sophia the humanoid robot.   

4.Self - Awareness    

In simple words, a human being with a body made up of metals. Till now, we haven't designed anything like that which is super intelligent, with self-awareness and know its state of mind. Do you think there will be apocalypse like “Terminator Movie” if we were able to design this type of AI?  

The current AI technologies    

1.Robotics   

It is a field of science that specializes in designing, innovating and manufacturing robots. Many types of robots perform different tasks like assembling cars, performing surgeries, as a waiter in a restaurant or as a cashier in a supermarket.   

2.Machine Learning    

The computer/system learns and adapts itself to the situation and acts without programming. Deep learning is a subset of this which is used for predictive analytics. It is used in various industries like cybersecurity, share market, virtual assistant, etc.   

3.Natural language processing    

It’s the ability of a system to understand and process human languages. Most of you must have used grammarly.com, it is an AI that finds fault in your writing and corrects it. Other examples are email spam detection, social media monitoring, chatbot, etc.   

4. Machine Vision   

The science of making computers see and visualize things. Packaging inspections are the best example of this, like in a cookie factory the AI cameras can detect broken cookies and can separate them. Reading barcodes and item tracking are other examples where this technology is used.  

6.Robotic Process Automation   

The use of software with artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning capabilities to handle high-volume, repeatable tasks that previously required humans to perform. These tasks can include queries, calculations, and maintenance of records and transactions.  

Machine Learning  

Machine learning is the ability of a system to automatically learn from experiences without being programmed again and adapt to the changes. Machine learning is going to bring revolution in the technological industry.  

Machine learning technology is developed by making intelligent computer programs that can analyze the situation and adjust accordingly. In the future, this technology will used to make Robots to perform operations as humans do. 

Difference between AI and Machine Learning  

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In simple terms, Machine learning is a subset of Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning is a subset of Machine Learning. Machine learning is the science of the development of self-learning algorithms. These algorithms are designed for different purposes. Machine learning uses data and information to develop self-learning algorithms. For example, your virtual assistant like Alexa or Siri learns from your everyday routine and according to that it increases the accuracy of the responses.  

Whereas Artificial Intelligence is the science of the development of a software or system to behave like human beings. AI uses many technologies to perform operations one of them is Machine learning. For example, Chatbots uses different algorithms to respond to the customer and behave in such a way that a customer will think a real person is responding.  

Types of Machine Learning  

Supervised  

In this type of machine learning, we have to teach the machine to recognize or analyze information. It’s like a teacher-student relationship, you expose data to the system, and they respond accordingly. For example, Facebook teaches the program to filter the images uploaded and in this way, the system learns and performs the operations. So, after the model is trained it can easily analyze the data and make logical decisions.  

Unsupervised  

This is the opposite of the Supervised learning, here the program learns through observation and recognizing different patterns in the data. For example, google search engine will try group together search results by looking at and analyzing the resemblance or irregularity in the data.  

Reinforcement   

This is an advanced version of unsupervised machine learning; the program uses hit and trial method and learns from the outcomes. For example, we have designed a program to play a chess game, it will always learn whether it, loses or win a game. Every time its performance will get better and better with the learning from different outcomes.  

What is Deep Learning?  

In simple terms, deep learning is the ability of a system to work like a human brain and perform functions as normal humans do. Deep learning is an advanced version of machine learning. The deep learning system is inspired by the human brain and an artificial neural network system is developed to solve problems and each time improves the outcome.  

Deep learning uses neural network computing model which resembles a human brain neural system. A new neural network can train itself without any human interaction and recognize different patterns and predict accurate results. It has complex interconnected layers of neural networks and networks can have a thousand layers of hidden networks.  

Alpha Go  

It is said to be the most advanced program which combines AI, Machine learning and Deep learning. In 2017 it Alpha Go master beat world number 1 ranked player Ke Jie in board game Go. It was a significant achievement because Go is a very complex game and has millions of possibilities. It shows that machines can have the ability to learn and adapt accordingly to the situation. 

Applications AI and Machine Learning  

1.Virtual Assistant and Chatbots   

To enhance the customer, experience the strengthened Chatbots and the virtual assistant will play a great role in the coming days. They will play the role of customer service executives and will be active 24*7.  

2.Autonomous Vehicles   

Nowadays self-driving cars are being developed using AI, a great example is Tesla cars. In the future, there will be flying cars driven by an intelligent computer. Uber has announced by 2020 it will introduce flying taxis.   

3.Robots will take care of Hazardous Jobs   

The boring, dull and dangerous job will be taken by the Robots. For example, bomb disposal, various industrial operations, an inspection of a nuclear accident, etc.   

4.Cyborg Technology   

You must have seen Sophia Robot which the best example of a humanoid robot or you can watch Terminator movie. Advanced humanoid robots which will act as a companion, will understand your feelings and emotions.    

5.Climate Change   

With the evolution of supercomputers and Machine learning which can process a large amount of data will help us to predict the future calamities and Climate change.   

6.Cyber Defense   

With advancements in machine learning and AI, we can protect our systems from malware, and it will have the ability to detect and predict future attacks from malicious objects.   

7.Space Exploration   

Have you seen the movie interstellar where there were two highly advanced robots TARS and CASE explore the universe with humans? In future Space, agencies are going to build intelligent robots that will explore the universe and will send all the vital information back to Earth. 

In the future we see many advancement in Artificial Intelligence and Machine learning. The next technological revolution is coming and we will see many countries competing to get ahead in this AI race.There has been a speculation that AI poses risk to the humanity but we hope AI technologies will always be used for the betterment of humanity. 

References 

1.https://www.zdnet.com/article/what-is-machine-learning-everything-you-need-to-know/ 

2.https://www.mathworks.com/discovery/deep-learning.html 

3.https://futureoflife.org/background/benefits-risks-of-artificial-intelligence/?cn-reloaded=1

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